August 21, 2019

What is a General Research Process

  1. Selecting the research topic
    1. Narrow down the potential ones among the available issues in the particular area of research.
    2. Research problem should be neither too long or too narrow.
    3. Topic should be clearly defined and understood.
    4. Selecting a suitable research topic requires knowledge and time.
  2. Defining the research problem
    1. Clear and precise definition.
    2. All aspects related to the research problem are identified after which a problem statement is formulated.
    3. Precise problem statement helps the researcher to select the research design and data collection methods easily.
  3. Objectives of research
    1. Setting objectives prevents distractions.
    2. The objectives should be clear and attainable.
  4. Literature survey
    1. Analyse the available literature related to the research area.
    2. The purpose of literature survey is to provide the researcher an idea about the area of knowledge and issues that needs to be addressed.
  5. Formulating research hypothesis
    1. Identify potential variables of the study, after which relationship statement is formulated on the basis of expected relation between the variables.
    2. The dependent and independent variables along with target population are also described with the help of hypothesis to make the research subject clearer.
  6. Selecting research design
    1. Preparing a structured plan outlining various methods and techniques required in conducting the research.
    2. Making sure that these methods and techniques are suitable for the research.
    3. With the help of research design, researcher is able to decide the necessary tasks to perform at each step of the research.
    4. Effective utilisation of time and resources.
    5. Regulate and control the research process.
  7. Sample design
    1. Responsible for effective selection of samples.
    2. Sample design sets platform for effective collection of data and analysis.
    3. Sample design process involves – deciding sample frames, sampling technique, sample size etc.
  8. Collection of data
    1. Required data is collected from the sample of population.
    2. Different methods are employed: surveys, interviews, observation, case studies etc.
  9. Execution of project
    1. Also known as implementation stage of the research process.
  10. Analysis of data
    1. Used to extract required information from the raw data by making it organised and meaningful.
    2. The analysed data can be visualised with the help of graphs, charts, tables etc.
  11. Testing of hypothesis
    1. Researchers perform certain statistical calculations to accept or reject the hypothesis.
    2. Based on collected data, a suitable hypothesis about a probability distribution is chosen.
  12. Generalisation and interpretation of data.
    1. Applying the findings and conclusions of the research to the actual world.
  13. Preparation of research report.
    1. Present the phases of the research in a written form.
    2. Clarity, coherence, objectivity.
    3. No overloading of data and descriptions.

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