October 20, 2019



  • Any non-profit, voluntary citizens’ group which is legally constituted, organized and operated on a local, national or international level. 
  • They are task oriented and driven by people with a common interest. 
  • An organization that is neither part of a government not a conventional for-profit organization
  • May be funded by governments, foundations, schools, businesses or private people. 

Features of NGOs

  1. Support democratic system
  2. Function on non profit basis
  3. Non political in character
  4. Clearly defined objectives
  5. Limited external control
  6. Voluntary character
  7. Wide operational area
  8. Positive contribution
  9. Need financial support
  10. Interest in long term projects

Roles of NGOs

  1. Create awareness
  2. Protect human rights
  3. Encourage rehabilitation
  4. Gainful employment
  5. Combat man made crisis
  6. Protect environment
  7. Change agent
  8. Support weaker sections
  9. Roles with respect to entrepreneurial scenario:
    1. Entrepreneurial Development Program (EDP)
    2. Counseling
    3. Development of infrastructure
    4. Support innovation and pilot projects
    5. Provide technical assistance

Classification of NGOs

By the level of orientation

  1. Charitable orientation – activities directed towards meeting the needs of the poor. 
  2. Service orientation – activities such as provision of healthcare, family planning, education etc. 
  3. Participatory orientation – characterised by self help projects where local people are involved particularly in the implementation of a project by contributing cash, tools, land, materials, labour etc. 
  4. Empowering orientation – help poor people to develop a clear understanding of the social, political and economic factors affecting their lives. To strengthen their awareness of their own potential power. 
  5. Professional association – a group of people in a learned occupation who are entrusted with maintaining control or oversight of the legitimate practice of the occupation. 

By the level of operation

  1. Community based organisations
    1. Created by people’s own interest
    2. Eg: sport clubs, women’s associations etc. 
    3. To help people and aware them to understand their rights and provide required services
  2. City wide organisations
    1. Association of community based organisations
    2. Eg: chamber of commerce and industry
  3. National NGOs
    1. Function is to support local NGOs.
    2. Eg: Red Cross, YMCAs
  4. International NGOs. 
    1. Funding to local NGOs
    2. Implementation of various projects
    3. Eg: UNICEF

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