The impacts of climate change are usually visible in the long run. 

  1. Forced migration
  2. Loss of livelihood opportunities
  3. Monsoon variability, flood and draughts
  4. Bushfires
  5. Food security
    1. Decreased yield
    2. Water scarcity
  6. Health
    1. People may suffer from heat stress (hot conditions)
    2. Warmer temperatures may lead to spread of diseases through water and food
    3. Psychological impacts – drought may cause depression and stress. 
  7. Infrastructure
    1. Electricity demand rises sharply during heatwaves – more investment in generation and network capacity.
    2. Roads are at risk due to increasing sea levels
  8. Melting of polar ice
  9. Desertification
  10. Acidification of oceans
  11. Extinction of species
  12. Extreme weather phenomena
  13. Ecosystems
    1. Climate warming causes land and ocean life to migrate away from areas that have become too warm, and towards areas that previously were too cool.
    2. In many places, climate change is likely to lead to invasion by new species and extinctions of some existing species that will have nowhere to migrate. 
    3. Carbon dioxide affects ecosystems both positively and negatively – CO2 fertilisation in land, enhancing growth in some plants and trees – absorption of CO2 into the ocean causes ocean acidification, impeding shell formation
  14. Decreased availability of freshwater
  15. Reduced snow cover
    1. Affect tourism
  16. Storms
    1. More water vapour is evaporated into the atmosphere, it becomes fuel for more powerful storms to develop. 
    2. More heat in the atmosphere and warmer ocean surface temperatures can lead to increased wind speeds